The city became famous for its resistance during the Battle of Stalingrad against the German Army in World War II. It is often regarded as the largest and bloodiest battle in the history of warfare.
Although the city may have originated in 1555, documented evidence of Tsaritsyn located at the confluence of the Tsaritsa and Volga Rivers dates only from 1589. The fortress Sary Su (a local Tatar language name meaning: yellow water/river), was established to defend the unstable southern border of the country. It was located slightly above the mouth of the Tsaritsa River on the right bank. It soon became the nucleus of a trading settlement.
Large Martian craters (greater than 60km in diameter) are named after famous scientists and science fiction authors; smaller ones (less than 60km in diameter) get their names from towns on Earth. Craters cannot be named for living people, and small crater names are not intended to be commemorative - that is, a small crater isn't actually named after a specific town on Earth, but rather its name comes at random from a pool of terrestrial place names, with some exceptions made for craters near landing sites. Latitude and longitude are given as planetographic coordinates with west longitude.